Brittle Dogs

Raven is a petite little mix of a dog. Dainty and precise, her movements are as graceful as a dance and she never seems to put a paw out of place. Her long legs and tail, sleek, short coat, and sharp muzzle remind me a bit of a canine supermodel. She learns new tricks at the drop of a hat (or a clicker, as the case may be), and is highly obedient.

Raven is beautiful and intelligent. She’s also alarmingly unstable.

Photo by Chris Suderman

Photo by Chris Suderman

The problem doesn’t lie in Raven’s owners. They’re lovely people, experienced in dog care and training. When they brought Raven home at 10 weeks of age, they started her in puppy classes right away and socialized her diligently. She became very friendly, playful, and polite with unfamiliar people and dogs, and enjoyed going to new places.

Then Raven had a scary thing happen to her. Late at night while her owners were walking her, a neighbor set off a firework. Just as the firework boomed, Raven noticed another neighbor walking past in the dark. She panicked, fighting and pulling to get home. Her owners were unable to calm her, and in her frenzy she was like a wild animal. By the time they got home, all three were exhausted, and Raven’s owners were very confused. Nothing like this had ever happened before.

After that scary night, Raven became highly reactive towards strangers after dark. She would lunge and bark at them, eyes huge. She was constantly on alert. Her owners started working on basic counterconditioning exercises with her and tried to get her walk in before dark each night. They were relieved that Raven was still friendly towards everyone she met during the day, and continued her socialization.

Then something else happened – this time, a painful procedure at the vet. Suddenly, Raven became afraid of new indoor environments. Taking her to new buildings became nearly impossible because she would refuse to go through the doors. She was on alert all the time in new places. She wouldn’t take treats or toys.

This pattern continued. Every time something even a little bit scary or uncomfortable happened, Raven’s behavior would shift dramatically. Her owners had never encountered fear reactions as intense as Raven’s before, and were at a loss about what to do. They had used the same socialization and training program successfully with multiple previous dogs. Nothing truly terrifying had ever happened to Raven. Yet within a year of the first incident, Raven’s owners found themselves living in a bubble.

Everything frightened their previously social and charming dog. Her owners no longer had company in their house because she barked at visitors. They no longer went on walks or took her with them to eat at outdoor restaurants. They brought a trainer into their home, but fired her after Raven’s behavior vastly deteriorated with the use of an electronic collar and some “hard love.” They talked to their vet about anxiety medication, and Raven started on Prozac.

So, what was going wrong?

Dogs are an amazingly adaptive species. They’ve evolved and been selected by us to live in every climate, every living situation, and with every species. Dogs guard vast herds of sheep in mountainous regions, trot down the busy Manhattan sidewalk amidst throngs of people, and work as a team to pull sleds in the frozen north. Dogs are kept as companions to adolescent Cheetahs in zoos. They guide the blind, sniff out explosives, and provide companionship.

Most dogs are every bit as adaptive as the history of their species would lead us to expect. With appropriate socialization, they can handle new problems with aplomb. Yet occasionally, I encounter a dog like Raven. These dogs do great as long as nothing bad ever happens, but fall apart at the seams when they encounter something frightening or uncomfortable. Once something has caused this general breakdown once, they seem to spiral even further down the rabbit hole, never recovering to their previous level of confidence. These are what I call “brittle” dogs, and if you’ve never lived with one, you can count yourself lucky.

Think of most dogs like a rubber band. If you pull on them a bit by exposing them to a situation that they were not socialized to as little pups, they may stretch out slightly, but will eventually return to their usual shape once the situation has returned to normal. They get stressed, but they have the coping skills to recover. They’re stretchy and flexible.

Other dogs, like Raven or like my dog Trout, are more like old rubber bands that have dried out. They look just like other dogs from the outside, but their core strength and elasticity is missing. If these dogs get stretched too far, they break. They shatter like glass, and no matter how hard their owners work to put the pieces back together, they’ll never be able to be used like a regular rubber band. They can only handle a little bit of stretch, and then they snap apart instead of snapping back together.

If you have a brittle dog and you know that your dog’s puppyhood and socialization were solid, there’s very likely to be a genetic component. These dogs are just wired differently. Nature provides lots of variety in the way it mixes the genetic cocktail of each dog who’s born. Variety is the stuff of survival, and desirable traits help their host live on to pass on the superior genetic advantage, while undesirable traits cause the host to die out. Except that our undesirable dogs are lucky enough to live in an environment where very little to no natural culling takes place. They don’t die out. They come to live with exceptional people like Raven’s owners, people who do their very best to help their dog become a normal rubber band.

Raven was four years old when I met her, but the truth is that she could have been any age. Had she not been startled by the stranger at the exact moment fireworks went off, or had she not had to have a painful veterinary procedure shortly after that, or had any of the other perfect storm of bad experiences not happened to her, she would probably be a happy, outgoing dog to this day. Bad luck and bad genetics ganged up on her and her owners in a very unpleasant way, and so instead of a bright and charming dog I met a stressed and fearful one who was absolutely not equipped to deal with my presence in her home.

So, what can you do if you suspect that you have a brittle dog?

1. Socialize, socialize, socialize. Remember that socialization refers to giving your dog positive experiences. Use treats, toys, and play to make new experiences fun and rewarding. Since brittle dogs put so much more weight on negative experiences than on positive ones, you need to make sure that the vast weight of your dog’s positive experiences can override the potential fear of one bad experience. Consider a dog who’s had thousands of good experiences with other dogs, meeting polite dogs and having a blast playing with them. This dog is much more likely to recover from being attacked by an unfamiliar dog than one who has only had five, ten, or even one hundred positive experiences with members of her own species.

2. On that same note, classically condition everything. Anytime your dog hears thunder or fireworks, meets a new person, goes to the vet, or encounters something new, turn the experience into a fun game using treats, toys, and play. Brittle dogs need extra feedback to know that novelty is not something to be feared, but rather an occasion to engage their curiousity. Since we know that brittle dogs develop fears and phobias more easily than most members of their species, the best thing we can do is to change their emotional response to new situations to one of joy and excitement.

3. Protect your dog. Brittle dogs are more fragile than most, and it’s helpful to keep this in mind. Since one bad experience could cause a dramatic shift in your dog’s ability to cope, take extra care to only expose your brittle dog to situations that you know he or she can handle. Understand that I’m not telling you to wrap your dog in bubble wrap – it’s still important to let him be a dog and to encourage him to explore new opportunities. But do be sure that you’re not setting him up to fail. Brittle dogs, for example, should not be dog park dogs, because you don’t know whether the other dogs at the park are always going to be friendly. A stable dog would be able to deal with the occasional snarky or possessive dog encounter at the dog park, but your brittle dog can’t. Instead, set up safer doggy play sessions by walking and enjoying off-leash time with known stable and friendly dogs.

4. Proactively teach your dog coping skills. Don’t just assume that your brittle dog can handle new situations. Instead, prepare him for each situation he’ll need to handle ahead of time. Teach him general relaxation skills using the Protocol for Relaxation, for example, or do some pretend blood draws while feeding peanut butter by gently restraining him, splashing cool water or alcohol on his leg, and poking his vein with a capped pen to prepare him for an upcoming vet visit. If you wait to work with your dog until he shows you where the problem areas in his socialization lie, it may be too late. Instead, assume that everything requires some proactive involvement on your part and avoid those issues altogether. Remember, an ounce of prevention will save you from a pound of cure!

5. Consider medications. Like Raven’s owners, you may find that your dog has a true chemical imbalance that needs to be corrected by medical intervention. Just as some dogs need insulin or thyroid supplementation, some brittle dogs need daily medication to increase the available serotonin in their system. Medications can also assist your brittle dog in overcoming new fears. A veterinary behaviorist is the best person to work with as you figure out which meds will be the most helpful.

So, do you have a dog who was given all of the proper socialization and early training but who just can’t cope with stress, or is your dog flexible and stable? And what about those “brittle” dogs who didn’t get the right socialization – how are they different? We’ll explore that topic next week! In the meantime, please share your experiences, tips, tricks, and questions in the comments section below.

8 responses to “Brittle Dogs

  1. I can only imagine how difficult this is.
    I look forward to comments following this article since, in all my years with multiple furbabies, I have not encountered a brittle dog.

  2. Holly I have had from 8 weeks old, she is a rescue dog in the sense she was born in the rescue centre. As a puppy she exhibited “normal” behaviour. Whilst on the lead she was attacked or rather lunged at by a cat sitting in a driveway who couldn’t be seen as we walked along. Every cat was a potential threat after that to be barked at or chased if one came into the garden. Then she had her first “panic attack” when we were out and we had shut the bedroom door where she wanted to go. She destroyed a portion of carpet trying to dig her way in. She was not punished physically, but certainly there was shouting! She did the same thing a week or so later when the door had been accidentally shut. It was months before she would go and see my husband when he first came home, despite all efforts to be nice to her. She has destroyed dog beds if she hears fireworks and we are not at home. Unfortunately the firework period can last a couple of weeks, or someone can be celebrating another occaision. She is terrified of thunder, bird scarers, gun sounds, however far away. She is now 10 and was shut in the dining room by accident last week so another ruined carpet. She has got more fearful as she has got older, we have tried pet shop tablets to calm her if we know something is about to happen which will affect her, these have been partially successful.

  3. This article made great sense to me for I obviously have a brittle dog. She is so sweet and loving around the family but cant cope well with new situations, new visitors or new dogs. After reading this a layer of guilt has been lifted. I know I did everything to socialise her from puppyhood but she has been spiralling down. I have come to realize I cant “mend” her but I can accept that this is her and try to “manage” her environment.

  4. I recognized one of my dogs from this piece. Yes, it is daily work to help these dogs cope with the world…but I also think if you are willing to learn, these dogs will teach their owners a lot more about dog training, psychology, empathy and analytical thinking than probably ten normal dogs could,,,And if you succeed at another long and hard desensitization processes, it is the sweetest feeling ever. Some days I am sad and wish her to be normal…and other days I am really grateful she came into my life. All in all I would buy her again in a heartbeat :).

  5. Pingback: Fearful Dogs | Paws Abilities

  6. You’ve included a lot of very helpful information in this post; I’m going to have to read and re-read several times, which is great, thank you. Three years ago I adopted a twice-returned rescue Border Collie that had multiple broken teeth and was very fearful… the official story was she’d been kicked by cows and was returned because she chased the second owners’ horses… I have no idea how long she suffered from the pain and agony of 3 broken canines but I paid for the dental surgery, four root-canals (One of her Maxillary molars was rotted in the front but we saved the back) and took her home to recover. Lived in suburbia at the time, with the usual noises and disturbances of neighbors, cars, etc. She exhibited extreme fearfulness on the leash around the neighborhood and cowered in her crate most of the day. Anything that stressed her made her “flee to safety” whether it was her crate, the car, or the porch. It was a very challenging time. It took me a long time to figure out that her most panicky behavior was associated with high-pitched voices, especially children’s voices. We had a family next door with screaming kids and one day Skeet nearly chewed her way through a wooden-framed screen door to get back into the house and to her crate! After that I learned to protect her as best I could from those triggers. Fast-forward three years, now she’s been out here in Kentucky on a farm with no screaming kids next door, and after two years of safety and learning to “be a dog” that chews food and chases after balls and enjoys trotting up the farm road with me, she’s starting to let go of her “flee to safety” reflex. Bit by bit. There is no way I’ll ever know how she was injured or what the connection with small children was, but it certainly made her very brittle, very fearful. She’s actually at the point now I think we could reintroduce her to her herding commands during our ball-throwing sessions, and let the collie come back out. It’s a real pleasure to see her ears prick and her face light up when the chuck-it ballthrower comes out – this dog that couldn’t even chew her food and didn’t know how to play with toys much less retrieve a ball, is now a vibrant, happy animal. She might even get back to sheepherding someday, who knows. Just wanted to share my experience and emphasize how important it is to let go of our expectations and let time and patience and acceptance do its work.

  7. I have what you call a brittle dog. When I adopted her at eighteen months she had not been socialised at all. To me, this is the most important thing you can do for any dog, but especially an unbalanced dog. Some people think that by having other dogs at home, that is enough. No. Your brittle dog needs to be exposed to other dogs and situations on a daily basis. I have had my dog seven years now, and still take her to dog socialisation classes at least once a week, where she mixes off lead on a field with up to thirty other dogs. She is very much improved from when I got her, but this is a life-long process of daily walks and exposure to new things. The thing that has helped my nervous dog most has been my recent adoption of a very old male, with a calming energy. It took a long time to find just the right dog after my two old dogs died, but it was worth waiting. If you can, I suggest adopting an older very calm energy dog to help your brittle dog. If you don’t know how to choose one, let your nervous dog choose. I did, and it has worked very well.
    Thank you for your interesting posts. I will be reading them from now on.

  8. Pingback: 5 Tips for Traumatized Dogs | Paws Abilities

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