5 Tips for Traumatized Dogs

In recent weeks, we’ve discussed fearful and brittle dogs. Some dogs can have the best start in life and still grow up with behavioral concerns. Other dogs missed out on critical socialization experiences as puppies, which impacted their development. But what about dogs who have had it even worse? How does trauma impact dogs?

Some of the dogs we take into our homes don’t just come from neglectful pasts but have lived with outright abuse. Sometimes this abuse has been due to mistreatment at the hands of a past owner, and sometimes it has happened in the current home despite to the owner’s very best intentions. Trauma has a lifelong impact on many dogs.

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Training is still an unregulated field, which means that there are still many so-called trainers who use aversive training techniques to address behavioral problems. There’s a reason why the AVSAB, the organization for the premier experts in animal behavior, has a position statement regarding the use of punishment in training. Manufacturing fear or avoidance in an already panicked animal does not create an environment where critical learning can take place. I’ve heard of trainers shocking dogs who suffer from separation anxiety for barking in their crates, hanging dog-aggressive dogs by their neck when they lunged at others, and strapping electronic collars to dogs’ genitals in the name of behavior modification.

Remember that you are your dog’s advocate. If something doesn’t seem right to you, it is up to you to put your foot down and protect your dog. Even something as seemingly mild as squirting a reactive dog with a water bottle or gently placing a frightened dog into a fear-inducing situation (such as setting a dog who is afraid of slippery floors onto the middle of the kitchen floor) and preventing that dog from leaving can have long-lasting consequences. While you may have had the best intentions when you followed the advice of the trainer on TV or tried a technique that your coworker swears by, if your dog responded by panicking or shutting down and if you’ve noticed that your dog’s behavior has deteriorated since that time, it’s possible that your dog could be experiencing a canine version of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, also known as PTSD.

PTSD is most well-known as a disorder frequently experienced by veterans, but any survivor of trauma may experience the symptoms. Little is known about why some individuals experience symptoms that can range from mild to debilitating while others who were present in the same event can emerge unscathed.

Extreme fear oftentimes results in altered perceptions of the event. Triggers associated with the fearful event do not engage the hippocampus, which is usually responsible for memory, but rather the amygdala, which is responsible for emotions. Strong flashbacks to the original panic state can be instantaneous, and are not under the dog’s conscious control. Just as you’re unable to control the contraction or dilation of your pupils when you feel strong emotions, a dog experiencing Post Traumatic Stress symptoms such as this is absolutely unable to stop feeling the way he does in the moment.

The triggers for this flashback state may not make logical sense. Scents, textures, certain movements, and even the time of day can all trigger this instant fear reaction. While some triggers are easily explained, such as Layla flinching and dropping to the floor the first time I carried a rolled up newspaper into the house or a previous foster dog slinking away if he smelled alcohol on a visitor’s breath, others are less easy to tease apart and may never be completely identified. A foster dog several years ago would occasionally yelp when he was touched, even after soliciting attention, but the vet could find nothing physically wrong and his quick fear reaction never manifested twice when the same area of his body was touched. Another dog that I’m working with right now will begin trembling for no apparent reason several times a week, hiding under the bed and occasionally voiding her bladder in terror. While her owners are keeping diligent notes, they haven’t been able to pinpoint the source of these episodes.

If your dog has a history of trauma, whether suspected or confirmed, here are some guidelines to remember.

1. The dog determines what’s traumatizing, not you. While you may not have thought that holding your dog down for a simple nail trim was that big a deal, your dog may have a different opinion. Watch your dog’s body language for signs of stress such as lip licking, yawning, slower or faster movement, freezing, and turning away so that you can intervene if a situation starts to go south. Pushing through such situations can almost guarantee that they’ll create new fear triggers in many dogs.

2. Create safe places. One of the reasons that mat work is so very helpful for so many dogs is due to its clear structure of safety. By making the mat a positive place where treats, relaxation, and massage take place, we can create a positive conditioned emotional response to the mere presence of this training tool. Once the mat becomes a safe place, make sure to keep it that way. Don’t let anything bad happen to your dog on the mat. You can create other safe spaces as well – places in your dog’s environment where good things happen and where there is no pressure placed on the dog.

3. Give your dog choices. One of the fastest ways to traumatize any mammal is to take away all of his or her choices. Manufacture opportunities for your dog to make choices about his or her environment, schedule, and care as much as possible. Whether you let your dog decide which way to turn at the end of the block, wait for your dog to offer a foot for nail trimming, play with nose work, or give your dog several different beds to choose to sleep on, choice is hugely important. Set your dog up to make good choices, then reward those choices to build the dog’s confidence.

4. Always try to end on a good note. Research has shown that people who experienced identically unpleasant procedures created very different memories of those procedures depending on how traumatic the final moments of the procedure were. While we don’t know whether dogs have the same cognitive recall abilities, it certainly doesn’t hurt to try to make the last few seconds of any unpleasant experience as pleasant as possible. For example, Layla is very concerned about having her feet handled. I file her nails instead of clipping them because this is more comfortable for her, and she is in control of how fast or slow nail trimming sessions go. She is also free to leave at any time if she gets too scared. At the end of every nail-trimming session, I practice simply touching the nail file to her toenails for less than a second, followed by a food reward. Because each session ends with these quick successes, she’s more comfortable allowing me to handle her feet when it comes time for the next session.

5. Your dog is not his story. If your dog has a history of trauma, it’s important to be aware of that past, but equally important to help your dog succeed in the present. Too often, we get caught up in the stories we tell ourselves about our dogs’ pasts, and forget to pay attention to the animal in front of us. While trauma can have lasting consequences due to its huge impact on the way the brain develops and processes information, patient behavioral modification and an environment of safety can have equally powerful effects. See your dog for who he is in the moment, rather than who you expect him to be. He may surprise you.

If your dog has a history of trauma, make sure to read the posts on fearful and brittle dogs for more tips on helping him recover, and please share your stories in the comments below!

125 responses to “5 Tips for Traumatized Dogs

  1. Our 9 year old rescue retriever starts off wagging her tail then whining before howling.

  2. Extremely helpful. My tramatized 7yr old puppy mill survivor cries, whines and barks when I leave the house. Yet when I come home she tries to hide from me. Fearful. Training on indoor pads, after 3 weeks of attempting to take her outside to a dog run. No leach training. Panics at the sight of collars or leash. Indoor training is progressing slowly.
    Would a potty training puppy apartment be a good idea. She has been here nearly 1month.
    Any suggestions please email me cchevchuc@yahoo
    Thanks loads

  3. Thanks for this article. My dog Lucy all of a sudden started acting completely different. She is anxious, pacing , eyes wide open and fearful and I can’t figure out why. So I have her lying in my room in the dark with dog meditation music playing she is a whining but I hope it helps. I’m hurt for her and I’m at a kiss after this.

  4. Tafadzwa Rushesha

    Thanks for the article.. We just moved into a new home and my 8 weeks old pitbull puppy got bitten by my landloard’s 3 year old female boer boel. Before the experience it was a very playful dog and would bark at anything, followed me around the house and i was training it and it was catching up..After the incident, my puppy has got this scared look on its face, its no longer playful and doesnt wiggle its tail anymore, every time i come around it goes right between my legs as if its seeking protection, Basically she is now a sad dog and i am very worried about her. How best can i get her back to her old self, i miss her already…..

  5. Great Article! Love to read. These tips are very helpful for understanding the dog’s problem. Thanks for the article.

  6. My dog’s name is Roxy, she’s a 13 year old Shih Tzu. For the first 10 years of her life she lived with my elderly mother and sister. My sister had a cat named Max. Roxy and Max were raised together. I have both of them now as my mother and sister have passed away, sister first. I’m assuming there was some trauma since Roxie saw my mother passing away from cancer. The first couple of years when I had my pets I was also bedridden. Over the past year I have become healthier, in bed only to sleep and walking Roxy everyday. She seems to be thriving although she’s a bit chubby. Roxy spends most of the time on the bed sleeping while Max is awake all day and comes to me when his name. Reversal of roles? Hopefully that gives you some basic background and my issue or concern is this. Roxy used to bark frequently without being scolded other than told to go upstairs so she could finish barking when there were other dogs outside. I want her to be a dog and bark like other dogs would. I’m thinking possibly to do to the trauma or if there’s something that I’ve done. She’s not bark since the day I brought her to my home. I’m open to any sort of assistance because I want Roxy to be able to bark again. I have no doubt when she starts that I might regret this request but I want her to at least feel comfortable enough to do so.

  7. Hi, My dog’s name is Bailey, she is 2 year old toy poodle. I got her literally yesterday from a family friend, she is scared of everything and she seems to hate me. she lets me pet her but she just backs off everytime. I just want her to feel safe and comfortable I don’t know what I should do to make her more active and confident. Someone please reply to this comment and help me, I would appreciate it so much.

  8. Would a dog calming bed help for a dog that was traumatized and broke ooff her lead and was missing in bush for several days. Then a couple of years later was terrified of a storm and her owners were out. Dog took off in a panicked situation and was lost for 4 days. In a very bad way but is now home with her family.

  9. At 5yrs old my Black Mouth Cur was attacked by a much larger dog. He recovered from his wounds but on at 7yrs he’s extremely aggressive toward mostly large dogs. He’s a total sweet heart with people, especially women and children. I don’t know what to do. I’d love to take him to the beach to run and play with other dogs.

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