Littermate Syndrome

Getting two dogs at the same time seems like a great idea. Dogs are social animals, and a dog who will be alone all day can easily turn to destructive behavior or become anxious. Two puppies can entertain each other and keep each other company. So, what’s the problem with bringing home two puppies at once?

Professional trainers like myself recommend against getting bringing home two puppies. While this sounds like a good plan in theory, in practice it often causes quite a bit of heartache and trouble.

In addition to the problems one might expect with bringing home siblings such as double food and vet costs and double the potty training work, we need to focus on how the puppies will develop. Puppies’ brains continue developing until they hit sexual maturity (and even a bit beyond that), and there’s some convincing research out there that bringing two puppies home at the same time prevents one of the puppies from reaching his or her full potential.

Luckily for us, this topic has been researched extensively by someone who knows all about creating behaviorally sound puppies: guide dog organizations. One of the biggest problems that guide dog organizations run into is that puppy raisers are hard to come by. Puppy raisers are families who agree to raise future guide dog puppies, socializing them and teaching them basic obedience. This isn’t an easy job, and the emotional impact of giving up their puppies after a year of bonding and hard work means that many families are reluctant to repeat the experience.

In order to maximize the use of their volunteer puppy raisers, one guide dog organization decided to try an experiment. Willing homes were given not one, but two puppies to raise, thereby doubling the number of puppies the guide dog organization could work with. Puppies born to these organizations are tested before being placed and are tracked throughout their growth and development. What the organization found was startling. Placing two puppies in the same household always caused one puppy to become temperamentally unsuitable for work, even when both puppies started off as perfect candidates.

When two puppies are placed together, they learn to rely on each other. One of the puppies always becomes shy, even when both puppies started off as bold and outgoing. This is a huge problem, since it means that the shy puppy never reaches his or her potential. In fact, this was such a major issue that the guide dog experiment was quickly halted, and to this day guide dog organizations only place one puppy at a time in puppy raisers’ homes, even when the homes are highly experienced.

In addition to one puppy becoming shy, there are other behavioral implications for two puppies who are adopted at the same time. Oftentimes even the “bold” puppy turns out to be quite nervous and uncertain when separated from his or her littermate. Furthermore, the puppies frequently become incredibly co-dependent, exhibiting heartbreaking anxiety when separated from one another. They often fail to bond to their human family as strongly as they otherwise would, or sometimes at all. At social maturity, these puppies may begin fighting with one another, sometimes quite severely.

Even puppies who are not related can exhibit littermate syndrome when placed together. Professional trainers recommend against getting two puppies within six months of one another, because the risks are just too high. This doesn’t even take into consideration the other practical considerations, such as the increased costs of vet care, food, supplies, and training; the extra work of training and caring for two dogs; or the time requirements of two active puppies.

Can littermate syndrome be prevented? Theoretically, yes, however it’s so difficult as to be nearly impossible in practice. Remember, even experienced guide dog puppy raisers aren’t expected to be able to prevent this issue from developing. At a bare minimum, the two puppies would need to be crated and cared for separately, including separate walks, training classes, and playtime with their owners. The puppies need to have more one-on-one time with their new owners than they have with each other, effectively doubling the work and negating any of the possible benefits (i.e. companionship) that they were adopted together for in the first place.

The bottom line is that puppies do best when brought home separately. If you want multiple dogs, consider purchasing or adopting adult dogs who are already done developing instead.

91 responses to “Littermate Syndrome

  1. I brought home two puppies, same breeder but not litter mates, almost two years ago. One is a first generation Goldendoodle, one parent a golden retriever and the other a poodle. Her name is Rue and is considered a medium sized GD, weighing 42 pounds. The other is a second generation GD, one parent was a GD and the other a poodle, so I consider her to be 3/4 poodle and 1/4 g retriever. Her name is Prim and she is a mini GD, weighing 20 pounds. Bringing them home together made the initial adjustment of them being away from their litter mates a breeze. They were very easily crate trained and spent the first several months sharing a crate. Only when Prim, the little one, started growling at Rue in the night if Rue moved, did I start putting them in separate crates for night time sleep. We also have a 3 1/2 year old pit bull, Cali. All three are fed at the same time, with their bowls being placed in different parts of the kitchen. Cali and Rue eat their food very quickly. Prim likes to guard hers and she will growl equally at Cali or Rue if she feels they are getting too close to her bowl. Most of the time all three are walked together but we do try to take individual walks to work on better leash walking. Prim and Rue attended obedience class together without any issues. I have felt that any growling that Prim does stems more from her being a greater percentage of poodle and her disposition is more poodle-like. Cali and Rue play-wrestle a lot and Rue and Prim play-wrestle. Cali and Prim do not interact as much. The point of my comment is that I do not believe my dogs suffer from littermate syndrome and I would not discourage anyone from getting two puppies at the same time. We thoroughly enjoy all three of our dogs and their individual personalities.

    Lori

    • Your dogs are the exception not the rule. Maybe you got lucky, or maybe the worst is yet to come. There have been studies done, far more than your one experience, that prove your point invalid. I would never advise anyone to bring two puppies home, and any reputable breeder would never send someone home with two pups at the same time. I’m assuming since your poodle mixes, which is what they are, (“goldendoodle” is not a breed, its not even a word) came from a common backyard breeder, as reputable breeders do not breed mutts or mixes of any kind.

      • It is simply untrue to say no reputable breeder would send siblings home. My best friend is very involved in the whippet community ( AKC, UKC and ASFA) . She herself has a happy, well adjusted sibling pair, both on their way to multiple titles at 18 months old. MANY of her whippet owning friends have sibling pairs and all are well adjusted and good competitors.
        Several of the breeders I know through her encourage it. These are top breeders with many champions in their kennel lines.

        The so called sibling issue is based on a single study and anecdotal reports with a lot of selection bias. I myself own a sibling pair of terriers who are 2 1/2 years old and just amazing dogs. I would get a sibling pair again in a heartbeat. I don’t think the statements made about littermate syndrome are well supported by actual behavioral science.

      • Actually many people breed two different dog breeds to make these dogs it may not be a dog breed recognized by the AKC or in the dictionary. But people breed these dogs all the time so get your facts straight

        I have Not one but TWO american pit bull puppies (Reese and Karma both GIRLS). What i do is they both eat at the same time they have a puppy play pen reese is in the pen for about Two hours then Karma. Then we have them both out at the same time to play. I walk them a different times they go to Obedience class different times and i train them at different times for fifteen minutes EACH EVERYDAY. They are lovely 7 month old baby girls and i have an AMAZING bond with each dog i do admit it is a lot of working have two babies. But it is worth the joy they EACH bring

        P.S they have their own personalities and please don’t say anything like it was luck no i was a good puppy raiser i got my puppies when they were 6 wks old i don’t know if when you get them matters or not

        P.P.S This man inspired me to get two puppies instead of one

        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5Ynnxnlb2Y&list=UUyQLf6GuWgmJw53JgPPM8gg just skip to 4:35 adn

      • As a rescue owner I have raised many pups from same litters, none of which suffered from littermate syndrome hence invalidating your theories. One has to ask how much experience “professional trainers” have at raising litter mates at home? Most of the trainers I know either have only had one pup at a time or are breeders who sell their pups at 8 weeks of age, again not ever raising litter mates beyond that point. I would like to see the studies to validate this claim of littermate syndrome.

  2. I recently had a horrible situation arise with a client where a fight lead to the death of one of her dogs – litter mates adopted from rescue at 8wks. They were 8 years old at the time of this particular fight with a history of 5 years of peace in the home (there were mild scuffles up until the age of 3). (I’ll note that my services were for totally uncomplicated barking at the door, the deadly fight was likely triggered by a move in with family)

    I’ve also had littermate dogs in group classes who can’t even be across the room for one another without screaming bloody murder. They basically can’t exist on their own

    The risk – of either unhealthy attachment or severe fights – is absolutely not worth it, and I don’t allow litter mates living together in the same puppy class (they must go to separate classes). I’ll be sure to include this article in my list of resources. Thanks for writing it.

    Can you perhaps point me to the research done on litter mates? I wasn’t aware that there was any!

  3. We have two siblings, brother and sister collie/spaniel crosses. When we first approached a puppy behaviour class I received a very rude email reply from the person who ran it which amounted to the fact that she thought we ought be to put down for getting two at once or, at the very least, put one of them down as you ‘can never train two dogs’. Apart from being furious with the woman that made me even convinced that I was going to be successful. We went to three different classes to train us and them, we made sure we treated them equally, we trained them separately and together…nothing was rocket science it just made sense like you would treat human twins. Seven years later we have a fabulous pair of dogs. They love us, we love them, they love each other. Everything which the research article seems to say is not possible. Luckily I have worked in research most of my life so I know that for every piece of canine research which says one thing, you can find another which says the total opposite. I am glad we got our two at once and would not hesitate to do so again.

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  5. We also have 2 Shihtzu brothers who are 10months old,they get on very well and although we don’t separate them very often we will be trying to walk them occasionally on their own so they take more notice of us rather than just play with one another.I have read so many things saying you should never buy siblings but what I don’t understand is what’s the difference of getting a dog 6-12 months later but then letting them do “everything” together and not being separated!

  6. I raise livestock guardian dogs full time and have never had the issues you talk about. In fact, I sell more sibling pairs to people who go on to be great dogs, with minimal issues. I have also published articles on running sibling pairs of guardian dogs on stock in national magazines. If anyone would like to hear the other side of this coin, feel free to contact me. I think you’ll be quite pleasantly surprised to find out that this ‘Syndrome’ probably only happens with very inexperienced dog owners who don’t know what their dogs are trying to tell them…… http://www.lgdnevada.com

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  8. You might be interested in the research done in Portland, ME The testing was originally done on puppies for the benefit of human infants. However, the interesting results also benefits puppy owners. The brain waves of the puppy dog undergo a switch, exactly on the 49th day (week 7, day one), and the waves change to adult dog mode, – in other words, that brain wave pattern remains the same from then on. While they will continually learn new things – their personalities and intelligence quotient is measurable and best measured on that first day of the switch. I have had my litters tested on that day and can get an accurate account of the puppy and subsequently guide it towards the corresponding suitable human family type and environment which inturn increases the success of the experience for both the owner(s) and the dog. I encourage people to look into this research and testing.

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  10. I have littermates – I got them separately about 7 months apart. They were close at the shelter and I hated breaking them up, but they were also feral dogs and I could not handle two ferals at the same time – having never dealt with a feral “anything” before. Unfortunately, 7 months after adopting the first one, the shelter had to close and they asked if I would take the other since placing her in a home would be next to impossible. I agreed. So far – 5 years later, no issues. I hope that it continues. They are close, they trade leadership roles in various situations and still play like puppies some times.

  11. I have heard about littermate syndrome and have never experienced any of the warnings that people share. Our dogs bonded to each other and to us. Our dogs don’t fight. Our dogs created their pack hierarchy with our help and we’re at the top.

    Each set of littermates that we have attended training together. For Rodrigo and Sydney, we had a private trainer who visited us at home. Scout and Zoey went to puppy class.

    I have no idea if it’s because we have boy/girl littermates, if it’s their breed (all herding mix) or if we were just lucky 2 times. But I have heard from people who have experienced littermate syndrome and what they seem to have in common is that they weren’t prepared. Because we were warned, we were proactive with their training. But I don’t know if that was the key.

    • I have 2 female Lhasa Apsos half sisters . They are getting close to 2 years old. Daisy was 12 weeks and Minnie was 8 1/2 weeks when we got them. We took them both to puppy preschool TOGETHER and trained them TOGETHER. I kept up on training everyday for 6 months 2 times a day. We walked them separately took them potty together half of the time. We also crated them separately as well. We got them both spayed around 6 -7 months too. They played and played together and would and still always wear each other out . By training you become the pack leader. There is very little aggression towards each other maybe a little bark or mild whining growl if a toy is taken away or wanted. But they share welll. and NO AGRESSION TOWARDS US! Our dogs are the best. They can leave each other without freaking out. And they are bonded to our family very closely more than they are to each other. Yes getting 2 is expensive and double the work but we have a ball with them. Would have done it all over again. Littermate syndrome wont happen if dogs are trained .

    • Sorry i hit reply to the wrong one

  12. I’ve never heard of this before. I adopted two puppies from a rescue organization 5 years ago. Most likely they was about 2 months difference between the two. It was the best decision I ever made. The dogs are bonded, but not overly so, they bonded with the 3rd dog we eventually adopted and they are all very close to the humans of the family. Getting the two together helped the shy one gain confidence, as she watched her brother and learned from him. I trained them separately and together, walk them separately and together, and the three dogs are a wonderful group. I would love to see further research and circumstance. I don’t believe in absolutes and “always.”

    Susan C. Willett from Life with Dogs and Cats

  13. Hello, I am somewhat relieved to read some positive experiences with raising litter mates.
    I have a brother, Finn & sister, Penny (Lab / border collie mix). We searched for years for this combo locally, and were thrilled to bring home two. They are now 12 weeks old, and training has been difficult. We have been crating them together until today.
    I started price shopping online for another crate today, when I ran across an article about Litter mate syndrome. I was devastated and heartbroken. How could I choose a pup to give away or sell. I can’t.
    Article after article, the news was not good; until this forum.
    I think there is hope. I do intend on crating, training, feeding, playing separate as much as possible for awhile, but any advise from successful litter mate owners would be welcome and appreciated.

    • Hi Beth
      We crated both of our littermates together and let them tell us when they were ready to be on their own, which was about 4 months old. We don’t crate any of our dogs today, so it wasn’t necessary to separate them.

      We have 2 4-year olds and 2 7-month old littermates.

      Training was a challenge for us too, because everything took a little longer and each dog has their own personality. It’s so easy for a bad habit to spread through the pack (like barking in the house), but we’ve found that remaining calm, confident and firm helps a lot. We don’t have any issues with any of our dogs.

      One thing that surprised us was that the puppies learned from our adult dogs, which made training them easier. We haven’t experienced resource guarding (besides the random toy being stolen) and all of the dogs play well together.

      We used to play separately and go on separate walks with our adult dogs; when we do it now, it’s not planned, it just because it’s easier to walk with two dogs instead of 4 at times. We’re lucky, because we have a large property so there’s plenty of room for the dogs to play, run and explore together or on their own (under supervision).

      Best of luck with your dogs. I love the breed mix. We have a BC/Blue Heeler – Rodrigo. Crazy smart and sooo affectionate.

    • I have 2 female Lhasa Apsos half sisters . They are getting close to 2 years old. Daisy was 12 weeks and Minnie was 8 1/2 weeks when we got them. We took them both to puppy preschool TOGETHER and trained them TOGETHER. I kept up on training everyday for 6 months 2 times a day. We walked them separately took them potty together half of the time. We also crated them separately as well. We got them both spayed around 6 -7 months too. They played and played together and would and still always wear each other out . By training you become the pack leader. There is very little aggression towards each other maybe a little bark or mild whining growl if a toy is taken away or wanted. But they share welll. and NO AGRESSION TOWARDS US! Our dogs are the best. They can leave each other without freaking out. And they are bonded to our family very closely more than they are to each other. Yes getting 2 is expensive and double the work but we have a ball with them. Would have done it all over again. Littermate syndrome wont happen if dogs are trained .

  14. I really appreciate the feedback regarding this post. I work with foster youth and believe strongly siblings should be together, but I have heard of nothing but negative things about this with regard to dogs. Like a lot of dog philosophies, this one I also don’t dig.

    I took in two foster pups at 7-months-old who had been surviving and living on the streets of Mexico together. I went to foster one and found them a total package deal. The last thing I needed was two, but when they started off with such a difficult life, who am I to make it worse by splitting them up.

    I love how bonded they are. It makes my life easier. The idea that they won’t bond to humans and the family is just not my experience. They love me, clearly. They love each other, too. It’s like they know the difference between the dog-dog and dog-human relationship. Sure there is sign of separation anxiety between the two at times, but it improves as they get comfortable here. I also like that they look out for each other. They were a pack before I took them in, but they gladly welcomed me. I let them out of their crate, feed them, walk them. talk them to the park and give them treats. They don’t do that for each other!

    I think if you are a dedicated, consistent, loving pet-parent, this can totally be done and frankly I think it’s a special thing for the dogs to stay together. Call me crazy, but it just makes sense! Read about wild dogs and you will see that they stay together for a lot longer than our rescue or breed dogs do. Maybe I’m biased, who knows.

    • kimberlygauthier

      That is such a beautiful story and similar to our experience. Neither of our littermates came from hard conditions (one set we got at 8 weeks, the other at 6 weeks) and they did have separation anxiety at first, so much that we wouldn’t put them in separate kennels. Now all of our dogs act as a unit and act individually at times too. It’s obvious that they’d prefer to be together – play together, walk together – but there are times when they split up too do their own things and come back later.

      I love that they have each other, and us, and we have them. We have a happy life and I couldn’t imagine bringing home just one pup again since we’ve done littermates successfully 2x.

      I get emails from people around the world, because of my blog and my experience. I believe that it’s important to educate people about what could happen when they’re not prepared, but also what they should do to be prepared. For us, it was all about training.

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  19. We just adopted two dachshund sister puppies. One of them is shyer than the other, which was described in the article, but frankly, I can’t imagine the shyer one being without her sister. I don’t know exactly how they were treated before we adopted them, but the more dominant dog does take care of her sister. Interestingly, the shyer one is the more obedient one. I believe she’ll help teach her more confident sister.

    Anyway…My husband and I plan to do obedience training with the dogs, each taking one, but these girls compliment each other so well, I can’t imagine having them separated. Thanks to everyone who left positive feedback on having siblings. I’m looking forward to many years with these two sweeties.

    • Bethany – we have 2 sets of littermates. With both sets, the girl is more shy and reserved than her brother. But they do compliment each other. We no longer go to the dog park, but when we did, Rodrigo would protect Sydney, because she liked to have space if she didn’t know a dog.

      When Scout and Zoey used to go to puppy play dates, Scout would play and Zoey would stay with me, but he’d often come over and check in with her. It was sweet to see.

      We did separate our dogs – my boyfriend would play at home while I took one for a walk. Now that we have 4 dogs, separating the puppies is easy, because there is at least 1 other dog to keep him or her company.

      Dog training was paramount for us; we’ve worked with several positive based trainers; at first to train us and to train the dogs and then for fun brush up lessons. Helps to build confidence in the dogs and the humans.

      Best of luck!

  20. As a poodle breeder for 20 years, this has not been my experience. We test the personalities of each litter. Sometimes that helps to match littermates, but mostly it is used to match any new puppy with older dogs in their new household. It is also done to determine which have the focus to do work, such as therapy or hunting.
    Dogs live by a hierarchy of rank, so each has to find their position in the hierarchy of the family pack. In their different positions, they would have different jobs and personalities. In a traditional pack, as the genetic offspring of their original wolf ancestor, they might be a leader, harmonizer, clown, second-in-command, or loner. I find this research is too simplistic. If it were true, wolf packs would not have developed as they did.
    A family pack of dogs, like their wolf ancestors, is complex and diverse. It should be able to have littermates as part of the pack, just as a wolf pack does. Each dog will do some testing of the boundaries to find their place, until positions and roles are defined. As owners, we need to be easy with that testing and adjusting. It is part of their growth.
    I believe that what is true for the unique role of training guide dogs is not necessarily true for a diverse family arrangement. Even we humans need to find our different roles and positions within our family. It is simply natural.

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